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  PNW Update Newsletter

Current and Pending PNW Research

Related to Direct Seed Intensive Cropping Systems

Preliminary Listing - 4/20/98

Compiled by Roger Veseth, WSU/UI Extension Conservation Tillage Specialist

Grouped by Precipitation Zone -- This preliminary listing of PNW research efforts currently underway or proposed on direct seed intensive cropping systems technology are grouped in three categories based on precipitation zone:

1) Low/Intermediate Precipitation

2) Intermediate/High Precipitation

3) PNW - Across Precipitation Zones

Research Included -- This is not an "all inclusive" list of research projects, but covers many of the ones with a significant focus on some aspect of direct seed systems. Primary sources of projects on this list are from project reports and proposals to:

1) Commodity commissions (wheat, feed grains, pea/lentil) in Idaho, Oregon and Washington

2) USDA CSREES (Cooperative States Research, Extension and Education Service) research programs such as PNW STEEP III (Solutions To Environmental and Economic Problems), Cool Season Food Legume, and Columbia Plateau Wind Erosion PM-10 Project, and PNW Canola Research Program

3) USDA-ARS summaries of program areas (CRIS projects) related to direct seed systems.

Research Not Included -- Other public and private research efforts not listed here are also contributing to the advancement of direct seeding systems in the PNW. Plant breeding programs often address resistance to or management options for specific disease, insect, and weed problems that can limit yields under direct seeding as much as or more than under intensive tillage systems. Many of the university and ARS weed research programs are evaluating herbicide and management options applicable to direct seed systems, but research project titles do not specifically include direct seeding. Some private Ag industries are expanding research on alternate crops, rotations, equipment and management practices related to direct seeding as they seen increasing grower interest and market potential in these farming systems.

Funding Sources -- Not listed in project funding sources are the universities and ARS (except ARS CRIS projects). However, this state and federal base support in salaries, facilities, equipment, etc. provides a substantial contribution to most projects and enables effective use of project grant "operating dollars." In the STEEP program, this base support has been estimated to be about a 10 to 1 ratio. Grant sources in this project listing include:

1) USDA-CSREES STEEP III

2) USDA-CSREES Columbia Plateau Wind Erosion PM-10 Project

3) USDA-CSREES Cool Season Food Legume

4) USDA-CSREES PNW Canola Research Program

5) Oregon Wheat Commission

6) Washington Wheat Commission

7) Washington Barley Commission

8) O.A. Vogel Wheat Research Fund

9) US Dry Pea and Lentil Council

10) USDA-National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program

11) USDA-ARS CRIS projects (Current Research Information System)

Project Descriptions -- Research projects included in this list are briefly described in the following categories:

1) Title

2) Principle investigator(s)

3) Brief summary description of research objectives and procedures

4) PNW area where the research is or will be conducted

5) Year initiated or to be initiated

6) Major funding sources

Low/Intermediate Precipitation Zone

Title: Integrated Spring Cropping Systems for the Semiarid Wheat-Fallow Region

Principle Investigators: Frank Young, ARS-Pullman; Bill Pan and Kim Kidwell, WSU-Pullman

Summary Description: Large-scale, long-term field research project near Ralston, WA (south of Ritzville) on management systems for spring cereals and other spring crops under no-till with a conventional tillage/rotation comparison. Numerous satellite trials with no-till at various eastern WA locations on fertility, crop cultivar selection for weed competition, conventional v.s. no-till comparisons, seeding rate for SWSW, new sprayer technology, and alternate spring crops.

Research location(s): Ralston (Ritzville), and other eastern WA sites

Year initiated: 1996

Major funding source(s): USDA-CSREES STEEP III; USDA-CSREES Columbia Plateau Wind Erosion Project (pending); Washington Wheat Commission (pending)


Title: Development of Conservation Farming Systems for Protecting Soil and Water Quality in Downy Brome Infested Dryland Farming Areas

Principle Investigators: Dan Ball, Don Wysocki, OSU-Pendleton

Summary Description: Six-year, large scale trials to evaluate options to improve downy brome control and protect cropland resources in wheat-fallow cropping systems utilizing different combinations of rotation, herbicides and tillage for low rainfall, shallow soil areas. Develop continuous or flex cropping systems utilizing spring cereals and non-cereal crops, such as Canola, and a variety of tillage systems to improve downy brome control and enhance farm profitability and resource protection.

Research location(s): Pilot Rock, OR

Year initiated: 1993

Major funding source(s): USDA-CSREES STEEP III


Title: Disease Management for Annual Crops in Low-Rainfall Regions

Principle Investigators: Richard Smiley, OSU-Pendleton

Summary Description: Collaborate on Frank Young's Ralston, WA Project and Don Ball's Pilot Rock, OR Project (two STEEP III projects above) to quantify the impacts of diseases and develop disease management recommendations that reduce constraints to adoption of direct seeding and other low-till systems in the low rainfall regions.

Research location(s): Ralston, WA; Pilot Rock, OR

Year initiated: 1997

Major funding source(s): USDA-CSREES STEEP III


Title: Developing Flex Cropping Options for Wheat-Fallow Rotations

Principle Investigators: Don Wysocki, OSU-Pendleton, Stephan Albrecht, ARS-Pendleton

Summary Description: On-farm and research center field trials to evaluate and develop flex cropping systems under various crop rotations, direct seed and reduced tillage systems, and weed and fertilizer management practices over a 3-year period. The flex crop approach will help to minimize the use of fallow and adjust production practices based on soil water and crop prices to improve profitability and resource protection.

Research location(s): N.E. Oregon

Year initiated: 1997

Major funding source(s): USDA-CSREES STEEP III


Title: Integrated Soil, Water and Crop Management Strategies for Improved Farm Profitability and Environmental Quality

Principle Investigators: Don Wysocki, OSU-Pendleton

Summary Description: To help growers adapt to crop production changes under "Freedom to Farm," annual cropping trials with variables of tillage (including direct seeding), crop rotation and fertilizer conducted at the Columbia Basin Agricultural Research Centers at Pendleton and Moro. Focus is on intensifying crop rotations with spring crops to improve profitability, crop quality, weed and disease control, and soil and water conservation.

Research location(s): Pendleton and Moro, OR

Major funding source(s): Oregon Wheat Commission


Title: No-Tillage Spring Barley in Dry Areas

Principle Investigators: William Schillinger, WSU-Ritzville; with R. James Cook, ARS-Pullman

Summary Description: Develop one-pass methods of seeding spring barley, evaluate agronomic and economic potential of winter wheat-spring barley-fallow and continuous spring cereal rotations, and document effects of these management systems on soil erosion potential in the 10- to 12-inch rainfall zone.

Research location(s): Ritzville, WA

Year initiated: 1997

Major funding source(s): Washington Barley Commission, USDA-CSREES Columbia Plateau Wind Erosion PM-10 Project


Title: Alternate Wheat-Based Crop Rotations Using No-till for Low-Rainfall Dryland

Principle Investigators: William Schillinger, WSU-Ritzville, with Joe Yenish, WSU-Pullman and others

Summary Description: Six-year research effort in Adams and Douglas Counties to develop no-till cereal-based rotations with yellow mustard and safflower and other alternate crops. Focus will be on agronomic and economic crop performance, effects on root disease, weed and insect ecology, and changes in soil physical and biological changes. Evaluate the agronomic potential of alternate crops in dry areas though small scale no-till nurseries. Includes weed management studies in direct seeded yellow mustard and safflower.

Research location(s): Ritzville, Mansfield, Lind, WA

Year initiated: 1997

Major funding source(s): USDA-CSREES STEEP III, Washington Wheat Commission (pending), USDA-CSREES Columbia Plateau Wind Erosion PM-10 Project (pending)


Title: No-Till Annual Spring Wheat in the Horse Heaven Hills

Principle Investigator: William Schillinger, WSU-Ritzville; Ed Donaldson, WSU-Pullman; Frank Young and Keith Saxton, ARS-Pullman

Summary Description: A 6-year field trial in the 6- to 8-inch precipitation zone in central WA to compare annual no-till spring wheat to conventional winter wheat-fallow. Also includes satellite trials on no-till soft white and hard red spring wheat varieties and Russian thistle herbicide control methods.

Research location(s): Benton Co., Horse Heaven Hills

Year initiated: 1997

Major funding source(s): USDA-CSREES Columbia Plateau Wind Erosion PM-10 Project

Intermediate/High Precipitation Zones

Title: Residue Production and Retention in Small Grain Cereal and Legume Rotational Systems under Different Tillage Practices

Principle Investigators: Stephen Guy, Donn Thill, John Hammel, UI-Moscow; Roger Veseth, WSU/UI-Moscow; Tim Fiez, Joe Yenish, WSU-Pullman

Summary Description: Large-scale, research center and grower managed on-farm trials to: 1) evaluate pea, lentil and chickpea residue production and durability between and within species in rotational systems with various direct seed, min-till and conventional tillage systems, and 2) develop integrated crop and pest management systems for min-till and direct seeding of pea and lentil after spring cereals that retain adequate surface residue, and water infiltration and storage potential to effectively control surface runoff and erosion during legume establishment and in the following winter wheat crop, and improve crop yield potentials of both crops.

Research location(s): 8+ locations in N. ID and E. WA

Year initiated: 1996

Major funding source(s): USDA-CSREES STEEP III


Title: Rotation Designs for Direct Seed Cropping Systems

Principle Investigators: Dave Huggins, ARS; Eric Gallandt, Roger Veseth, WSU/UI-Moscow; Tim Fiez, Claudio Stockle, Joe Yenish, WSU-Pullman

Summary Description: Identify crop rotations with spring and/or winter pulse, Brassica and other non-cereal crops, and spring cereals that are advantageous for direct seeding. Establish on-farm and Pullman ARS research center field trials to develop crop models and evaluate crop performance under direct seeding and tillage. Evaluate beneficial and detrimental effects of crop rotation diversity under direct seeding and initiate the development of management options for growers.

Research location(s): E. WA and N. ID

Year initiated: 1998 (pending)

Major funding source(s): USDA-CSREES STEEP III (pending)


Title: Development of Direct Seed Cropping Systems with Winter Peas and Lentils

Principle Investigators: Dave Huggins, ARS; Eric Gallandt, Roger Veseth, WSU/UI-Moscow; Tim Fiez, Claudio Stockle, Joe Yenish, WSU-Pullman

Summary Description: (This project is an expansion of the STEEP III project above) Evaluate the performance of winter grain legumes under direct seeding following high residue crops (winter wheat and spring barley). Conduct risk assessment of potential yield, yield variability, and adequate seed zone moisture for fall establishment of winter grain legumes under direct seed and minimum tillage in the Palouse region. Establish long-term cropping systems research for direct seed systems that include winter grain legumes at the Palouse Conservation Research Farm.

Research location(s): E. WA and N. ID

Year initiated: 1998 (pending)

Major funding source(s): US Dry Pea and Lentil Council (pending)


Title: Development of Weed Management Strategies for Winter Peas and Lentils Under Direct Seeding

Principle Investigators: Dave Huggins, ARS; Eric Gallandt and Joe Yenish, WSU-Pullman; Roger Veseth WSU/UI- Moscow

Summary Description: (This project is an expansion of the proposed STEEP III and US Dry Pea and Lentil Council projects above.) Evaluate weed impacts on fall seed zone moisture, and the establishment and performance of winter peas and lentils under direct seeding following high residue cereal crops (winter wheat and spring barley). Determine the short-term "transition period" effects, positive and negative, of direct seeding winter legumes on weed community dynamics. Evaluate the efficacy of possible herbicide weed management strategies for winter legumes under direct seeding.

Research location(s): E. WA and N. ID

Year initiated: 1998 (pending)

Major funding source(s): USDA-CSREES Cool Season Food Legume Project (pending)

Title: Herbicide Evaluation in Direct Seeded Field Peas, Lentils and Chickpeas

Principle Investigator: Joe Yenish, WSU-Pullman

Summary Description: Evaluate a variety of herbicides for use in these commodities in direct seeding systems.

Research location(s): Walla Walla and Whitman Counties, in eastern WA

Year initiated: 1997

Major funding source(s): WA Pea and Lentil Council; WA State Committee for Pesticide Registration (SWCPR)


Title: Examine Cropping Systems Including Yellow Mustard in the Pacific Northwest

Principle Investigators: Jack Brown, Donn Thill, John Hammel and Wesley Chun, UI-Moscow

Summary Description: Field research near Moscow, ID to: 1) determine the effect of row spacing and seeding rate on weed management, seed quality and yield of yellow mustard under no-till; 2) compare water use efficiency of yellow mustard under different row spacing and seeding density with that of spring wheat, Canola and pea under no-till; 3) determine rotation effects of yellow mustard compared to wheat, Canola and pea with regard to soil physical properties, and weed and disease incidence in the following winter wheat crop under no-till; 4) conduct annual surveys of PNW yellow mustard growers to determine yield, cultivars grown, cultural practices and production problems.

Research location(s): Moscow, Genesee, ID

Year initiated: 1998 (pending)

Major funding source(s): USDA-CSREES STEEP III (pending)


Title: Modern Application of Historic Rotation Data

Principle Investigators: Bill Payne, OSU-Pendleton

Summary Description: An ex-ante economic analysis of historical data to hypothesize which of 32 crop rotation evaluated at the Pendelton research station from 1929 to 1953 would be most profitable and sustainable using today's technology and economic setting. If the approach proves promising, field experiments may be established to continue the rotation study.

Research location(s): Pendleton, OR

Year initiated: 1998 (pending)

Major funding source(s): USDA-CSREES STEEP III (pending)


Title: Developing agronomic practices for direct drilling winter Canola into cereal stubble

Principle Investigators: Don Wysocki and Bill Payne, OSU-Pendelton; Dale Wilkins, Clyde Douglas and Stewart Wuest, ARS-Pendleton

Summary Description: Field trials to determine seeding rate recommendations for direct drilling winter Canola into cereal residue, the influence of stubble height on crop performance and the influence of drilling into a dry versus a moist seedzone.

Research location(s): CBARC Pendleton, Oregon

Year initiated: 1998 (pending)

Major funding source(s): USDA-CSREES PNW Canola Research Program (pending)

PNW - Across Precipitation Zones

Title: Water Use Efficiency and the Role of Soil Biology and Soil Nutrients in Long-Term Direct Seed Systems

Principle Investigators: David Bezdicek, WSU-Pullman; John Hammel, UI-Moscow; and Dennis Roe, NRCS-Pullman

Summary Description: Compare six or more paired sites of long-term no-till fields with adjacent conventional sites across the Inland Northwest to evaluate changes in water use efficiency, soil quality and plant nutrient availability

Research location(s): E. WA, N. ID and NE OR

Year initiated: 1996

Major funding source(s): USDA-CSREES STEEP III, Washington Wheat Commission (pending)


Title: Assessing the Economic Viability of No-Till and Related Conservation Systems for Various Agri-Climatic Zones in the Pacific Northwest

Principle Investigators: Douglas Young, Herbert Hinman, and Wong Wang, WSU-Pullman

Summary Description: Evaluate the cultural practices, production costs, profitability and economic risk of no-till farming systems used by experienced no-till growers in the PNW and in major STEEP III research projects on no-till cropping systems.

Research location(s): N.E. OR, E. WA and N. ID

Year initiated: 1998 (pending)

Major funding source(s): USDA-CSREES STEEP III (pending)


Title: Management of Rhizoctonia Root Rot of No-Till Spring Barley

Principle Investigators: R. James Cook, ARS-Pullman

Summary Description: Identify genetic sources of resistance, seed treatment effectiveness and soil environmental and management impacts on Rhizoctonia root rot in no-till spring barley.

Research location(s): Ritzville and Dusty, WA

Year initiated: 1997

Major funding source(s): Washington Barley Commission


Title: Management of Wheat Root Diseases in Reduced-Till Systems

Principle Investigators: R. James Cook, ARS-Pullman; David Weller, Steve Jones, and Kim Kidwell, WSU-Pullman

Summary Description: Conducting no-till field trials to: 1) identify genetic resistance to root diseases; 2) evaluate chemical and biological seed treatments for root disease suppression; and 3) evaluate the effect of residue clearance from the seed row; and 4) develop integrated management systems for root disease management in no-till.

Research location(s): Colfax, Pullman, WA

Year initiated: 1997

Major funding source(s): Washington Wheat Commission


Title: Biological Control of Wheat Root Diseases in Modern Farming Systems

Principle Investigators: R. James Cook and David Weller, ARS-Pullman

Summary Description: Development of biological seed treatments and application methods with and without chemical seed treatments to reduce the impact of take-all, Rhizoctonia root rot and Pythium root rot of wheat, which can be a significant problem in cereal-base rotations under direct seeding.

Research location(s): Lab/various field sites in E. WA

Year initiated: ??

Major funding source(s): O.A. Vogel Wheat Research Fund


Title: Identification of Agronomic Traits and Wheat Varieties for Direct Seeding

Principle Investigators: R. James Cook, ARS-Pullman

Summary Description: Establish a program of laboratory and field screening and evaluation of winter, spring and club wheat lines and varieties for resistance/tolerance to specific production hazards as a basis for improvement of varieties adapted to direct seeded, cereal-based cropping systems.

Research location(s): Lab - Pullman, WA; field - Pullman, Colfax and Bickleton

Year initiated: 1998 (pending)

Major funding source(s): Washington Wheat Commission (pending)


Title: Phloroglucinol Producing Pseudomonads in Take-all Suppressive Soils

Principle Investigators: David M. Weller and Linda S. Thomashow, ARS-Pullman

Summary Description: To develop a fundamental understanding for the microbiological process by which soils convert from conducive to suppressive to the take-all root disease of wheat with long-term wheat monoculture, including long-term direct-seeded wheat monoculture.

Research location(s): Pullman, WA

Year initiated: 1997

Major funding source(s): USDA-National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program


Title: Biocontrol by Crop-Specific Phloroglucinol-Producing Pseudomonads

Principle Investigators: David M. Weller and Linda S. Thomashow, ARS-Pullman

Summary Description: To identify microbial biocontrol agents for root diseases of wheat and other crops using disease suppressiveness soils as the source of candidate strains targeted for direct-seed cropping systems.

Research location(s): Pullman, WA

Year initiated: 1997

Major funding source(s): USDA-National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program


Title: Biosynthetic Locus for the Biocontrol Antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol

Principle Investigators: Linda S. Thomashow and David M. Weller, ARS-Pullman

Summary Description: To identify the molecules and genes responsible for biocontrol of wheat root rot pathogens by rhizobacteria as a means to improve strains for use on wheat in direct-seed cropping systems.

Research location(s): Pullman, WA

Year initiated: 1996

Major funding source(s): USDA-National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program


Title: Enhancing Soil, Water and Air Quality in the Northwest Wheat Region (ARS CRIS)

Principle Investigators: Ann Kennedy, ARS-Pullman

Summary Description: Assessing soil changes as a results of tillage and direct seeding systems in a variety of crop rotations and production areas in eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Evaluating the benefits of grass in reducing the "transition period" when changing from conventional tillage to direct seed systems.

Research location(s): E. WA and N. ID

Major funding source(s): ARS CRIS


Title: Agricultural Wind Erosion and PM-10 Emissions in the Tri-state Columbia Plateau, Northwest U.S.

Principle Investigators: Keith Saxton and Ann Kennedy, ARS-Pullman

Summary Description: Coordinated multi-disciplinary, multi-agency research project to quantify wind erosion and fugitive dust emissions from Inland Northwest cropland and the effects of tillage and direct seed cropping systems.

Research location(s): Primarily E. WA

Year initiated: 1994

Major funding source(s): ARS CRIS project plus grants from USDA-CSREES


Title: Effects of Burn Low-till Recrop Winter Grain Systems on Erosion and Soil Quality

Principle Investigators: Don McCool and Ann Kennedy, ARS-Pullman

Summary Description: Field evaluation of the effects on burn low-till or no-till systems in recrop winter wheat on soil erosion and soil quality in southeast Washington.

Research location(s): various in S.E. WA

Major funding source(s): ARS CRIS project


Title: Land Management, Freeze-thaw Effects on Soil Erosion and soil Quality

Principle Investigators: Don McCool and Ann Kennedy, ARS-Pullman

Summary Description: Development and field verification of the effects of tillage and direct seed systems on physical process components in erosion, hydrology and water quality models used to design agricultural management system to control non-point source pollution.

Research location(s): Field/lab across PNW

Major funding source(s): ARS CRIS project


Title: Plant and Soil Management Strategies for Sustaining Dryland Agroecosystems

Principle Investigators: Paul Rasmussen, Stephan Allbrecht, Clyde Douglas, Stewart Wuest, Ron Rickman, Dale Wilkins, John Williams, ARS-Pendleton

Summary Description: Identify crop management practices, rotations, tillage, fertilizer input to optimize yield performance of no-till and low-till systems. Determine the effect of crop production factors on soil biological, chemical and biochemical aspects of carbon and nitrogen transformation. Define tillage, residue and plant root decomposition criteria for maintaining adequate residue for plant growth and conservation of soil and water.

Research location(s): Pendleton other N.E. OR

Major funding source(s): ARS CRIS project


Title: Dryland Agricultural Systems to Reduce Runoff and Soil Erosion

Principle Investigators: Ron Rickman, Dale Wilkins, John Williams, Stephan Albrecht, Clyde Douglas, Paul Rasmussen, Stewart Wuest, ARS-Pendleton

Summary Description: Develop methods to characterize and predict watershed scale responses, runoff quantity and quality, and timing response to weather, geomorphic features and management practices. Develop farming systems that reduce runoff and erosion, maintain soil organic matter and control plant pests with less dependence on pesticides and on the current dryland winter wheat/fallow production systems. Develop measurement techniques for characterizing soil surface conditions and crop residue to determine effects of soil and residue management on soil surface slaking, crusting, infiltration, soil freezing and thawing, and erosion by water.

Research location(s): Pendleton and other N.E. OR

Major funding source(s): ARS CRIS project

Note on ARS-Pendelton Direct Seed Research: Direct seeding is integrated into the two previous ARS-Pendleton CRISS projects. One example is a long-term Pendleton study with 16 years direct seeding with first-year (1998) direct seeding. The ARS/OSU effort will help evaluate the "transition period" from intensive tillage to direct seeding, documenting soil, crop and pest responses and determining the mechanisms influencing these changes.

     
 

Contact us: Hans Kok, (208)885-5971 | Accessibility | Copyright | Policies | WebStats | STEEP Acknowledgement
Hans Kok, WSU/UI Extension Conservation Tillage Specialist, UI Ag Science 231, PO Box 442339, Moscow, ID 83844 USA
Redesigned by Leila Styer, CAHE Computer Resource Unit; Maintained by Debbie Marsh, Dept. of Crop & Soil Sciences, WSU