Oregon State University
Washington State University
University of Idaho
 
Direct Seed Tillage Handbook
   Return Tillage Handbook
 

Pacific Northwest Conservation Tillage Handbook Series No. 8
Chapter 10 - Economics and Application of New Technology, May 1997


 

Northwest Directory of Technology Resources for Conservation Tillage Systems

-- Version 1, May 1997 --

This Directory was compiled by Roger Veseth, WSU/UI Conservation Tillage Specialist. It is only an initial collection of technology resources available from the Northwest, plus some resources from other areas that potentially may be useful in this region. The Directory was developed to provide growers and Ag support personnel better access to technology resources that may assist them in the development and adaptation of conservation tillage systems for their local production conditions. It not an endorsement of all the resources listed, nor their content.

Be aware that conservation tillage systems and equipment used in one region may or may not be directly applicable to other areas. Differences in annual rainfall distribution (summer versus winter), precipitation amounts, steepness of field slopes, crop residue levels, soil textures, and many other factors can affect the application of "outside" technology to Northwest conditions. Some principles of management technologies for conservation tillage may apply almost universally, while others may not. The Pacific Northwest is also extremely variable locally and across the region with site-specific soil, climatic and production conditions. Consider on-farm testing of new technologies on a small scale before adopting them on the whole farm.

This Directory will be updated with new resources and new versions will be printed in the future. Your suggestions are welcome. To request an updated copy, or make suggestions for resource additions or revisions to the Directory, contact Roger Veseth, WSU/UI Extension Conservation Tillage Specialist (208-885-6386 or e-mail rveseth@uidaho.edu). You will also find updated versions of the Directory on the World Wide Web Home Page "Pacific Northwest STEEP III Conservation Farming Systems Information Source" (http://pnwsteep.wsu.edu).

 

PNW Conservation Tillage Handbook Series and Web Page

The Pacific Northwest Conservation Tillage Handbook was initiated in 1989 as a PNW Extension publication in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. By 1997, 34 new PNW Conservation Tillage Handbook Series publications have been added to the original 98 publications in the large 3-ring binder. The Handbook Series highlights new research results and management strategies on conservation tillage systems in the Pacific Northwest developed through the STEEP (Solutions To Environmental and Economic Problems) conservation farming research program and other related PNW research efforts.

The PNW STEEP III Extension Conservation Tillage Update now serves as a mechanism for distributing new Handbook Series publications to Handbook recipients. Everyone who receives the Handbook (and returns the enclosed updating card) is added to the Update mailing list.

Handbook copies are available for $20 through county extension offices in the Northwest or ordered directly from: Idaho -- Ag Publications, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2240 (208) 885-7982; Oregon -- Ag Communications, Publications Orders, Oregon State University, Administrative Services A422, Corvallis, OR 97331-2119 (541)-737-2513; Washington -- Bulletin Office, Cooperative Extension, Cooper Publications Bldg., Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-5912, (509) 335-2999 (plus $4 for shipping and handling; WA residents add 7.5% sales tax).

It’s now accessible on the Internet! All of the PNW Handbook Handbook Series are being put on the World Wide Web Home Page (http://pnwsteep.wsu.edu) titled Pacific Northwest STEEP III Conservation Farming Systems Information Source. The Web site also contains recent issues of the PNW STEEP III Extension Conservation Tillage Update, listings of other conservation tillage information resources, coming events and much more. For more information, contact Roger Veseth, WSU/UI Conservation Tillage Specialist, Plant Soil and Entomological Sciences Department, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339, phone 208-885-6386, FAX 208-885-7760, e-mail (rveseth@uidaho.edu).

 

PNW STEEP III Extension Conservation Tillage Update

Since 1976, the STEEP (Solutions To Environmental and Economic Problems) conservation farming research program has been a major sourced of new technologies for conservation farming systems in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. An obstacle to grower access to new technology from STEEP and related research programs has been the size and complexity of the tristate research efforts. Historically, extension efforts have focused within respective county and state boundaries. The PNW STEEP Extension programs have helped make new developments in management technologies more available to growers in applicable production areas in the Northwest.

The PNW STEEP III Extension Conservation Tillage Update provides an effective technology transfer tool for conservation tillage systems technology throughout the Northwest. New technology is addressed from three perspectives: 1) what agroclimatic areas it applies to; 2) how producers might incorporate it into their farming systems; and 3) how it relates to other management considerations.

PNW Extension Specialist work with other researchers from the STEEP and related research programs to develop articles and other publications on new technologies for specific management topics. Many of the articles have been condensed or reprinted entirely in local newsletters by county agents, conservation districts, agricultural magazines and newspapers, and other grower information networks.

The PNW STEEP III Extension Conservation Tillage Update also distributes new issues of the PNW Conservation Tillage Handbook Series. Copies of the complete Handbook are available for $20 through county extension offices in the Northwest or ordered directly from one of the state extension publication offices: Ag Publications, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2240 (208) 885-7982; Ag Communications, Publications Orders, Oregon State University, Administrative Services A422, Corvallis, OR 97331-2119 (541)-737-2513; Bulletin Office, Cooperative Extension, Cooper Publications Bldg., Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-5912, (509) 335-2999 (for WSU purchases, add $4 for shipping and handling; WA residents add 7.5% sales tax).

It’s now accessible on the Internet! New issues of the PNW STEEP III Extension Conservation Tillage Update and all of the PNW Conservation Tillage Handbook are being put on the World Wide Web Home Page (http://pnwsteep.wsu.edu) titled Pacific Northwest STEEP III Conservation Farming Systems Information Source. For more information, or for addition to the Update mailing list (if not added by purchasing the Handbook), contact Roger Veseth, WSU/UI Conservation Tillage Specialist, Plant Soil and Entomological Sciences Department, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339, phone 208-885-6386, FAX 208-885-7760, e-mail (rveseth@uidaho.edu).

 

Videos of 1997 PNW STEEP III Conservation Farming Conference

The January 1997 Pacific Northwest STEEP III Conservation Farming Conference in Kennewick, WA provided an in-depth review of new conservation farming systems technologies from innovative growers and some of the regions leading researchers. To help make this unique PNW educational opportunity available to a much larger audience across the Northwest, videotapes were produced from the six different Conference focus sessions. The following is a listing of video identification numbers, approximate length (hours) and video titles, along with the presentation titles and speakers included in each video:

STEEP III 97-1 (2 hours) --- Focus Session: CRP Take-Out Strategies and Considerations

Overview of 1994-96 CRP Take-Out Research Project - Roger Veseth, WSU/UI, Moscow, ID

Grower Experience with CRP Take-out for Summer Fallow-Winter Wheat - Remie DeRuwe, Grower, Connell, WA

Grower Experience with CRP Take-out for Spring Wheat - Ron Jirava, GrowerRitzville, WA

Fertility Management Considerations in CRP Take-out - Tim Fiez, WSU, Pullman, WA

Soil Quality Changes with Different CRP Take-out Systems - Ann Kennedy, ARS, Pullman, WA

Economic Evaluations of CRP Take-out Systems - Kate Painter, WSU, Pullman

Preliminary Conclusions and Considerations - Roger Veseth, WSU/UI, Moscow, ID

Discussion with Veseth, DeRuwe, Jirava, Fiez, Kennedy, and Painter

STEEP III 97-2 (1 hour) --- Focus Session: Plant Disease Control in Conservation Farming Systems

Conservation Issues as They Affect Plant Diseases - Dick Smiley, OSU, Pendleton, OR (Presented by Russ Karow, OSU Extension Agronomist, because Dr. Smiley was unable to attend)

Disease Resistant Wheat Cultivars and Cultivar Mixtures As a Non-Chemical Approach to Decrease Disease and Increase Yield - Chris Mundt, OSU, Corvallis, OR

Discussion with Karow and Mundt

STEEP III 97-3 (1.5 hours) --- Three Presentations on Conservation Farming Technologies

Access to STEEP Knowledge Base on the Internet - Baird Miller, WSU, Pullman, WA

Cropland Wind Erosion and Air Quality Prediction and Management - Keith Saxton, USDA-ARS Pullman

Bluegrass Seed Production Without Open Field Burning - Glen Murray, UI, Moscow, ID

STEEP III 97-4 (2 hours) --- Focus Session: Crop Rotations and Flex Cropping for Conservation Farming

Grower Experiences with Annual Cropping in the Wheat-Fallow Region - Brian Jones, Grower, Helix, OR

Innovations in Farming Systems in the Northern Plains -- Implications for the PNW - Russ Zenner, Grower, Genesee, ID

Evaluating Dryland Corn as an Alternate Crop in the Inland Northwest - Roger Willis, Pioneer Seed, Pasco, WA

Agronomic Impacts of Alternate Spring Crops in Rotations - Stephen Guy, UI, Moscow, ID

Crop Management Strategies for Alternate Spring Crops - Don Wysocki, OSU, Pendleton, OR

Discussion with Jones, Zenner, Willis, Guy and Wysocki

STEEP III 97-5 (2 hours) --- Focus Session: Grass Weed Management in Conservation Farming Systems

Post-Harvest Management Practices to Reduce Downy Brome Seed Production and Longevity - Alex Ogg, Jr. USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA

Management of Jointed Goatgrass in Conservation Farming Systems - Frank Young, USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA

Cropping Systems for Downy Brome Management - Dan Ball, OSU, Pendleton, OR

Downy Brome Control in Winter Wheat with MON37500 - Donn Thill, UI, Moscow, ID

Discussion with Ogg, Young, Ball, and Thill

STEEP III 97-6 (1.5 hours) --- Focus Session: New Opportunities for Precision Agriculture

Overview of Precision Agriculture - Tim Fiez, WSU, Pullman, WA

Remote Sensing and GIS Methods for Defining Soil Management Units- Bruce Frazier, WSU, Pullman, WA

Spatially Variable Management Systems for Winter Wheat Production - Chuck Peterson, UI, Moscow, ID

Discussion with Fiez, Frazier, and Peterson

Video Requests: Loan copies of the videos are available without change. Copies of each videos may be purchased for $15 (send no check, a bill will be sent with the video). For a video loan or purchase, contact Marguerite Winterowd, Cooperative Extension office, WSU Crop and Soil Sciences Department. P.O. Box 646420, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6420, phone 509-335-2915, FAX 509-335-1758 or e-mail (ce6025@coopext.cahe.wsu.edu). For more information on the videos, contact Roger Veseth, WSU/UI Conservation Tillage Specialist, Plant Soil and Entomological Sciences Department, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339, phone 208-885-6386, FAX 208-885-7760, e-mail (rveseth@uidaho.edu).

 

Five-Year STEEP II Interpretive Summary Report 1991-1996

The identification and prediction of cropland soil erosion problems in the Pacific Northwest, and development of effective, economical cropping systems for erosion control, have been the focus of STEEP (Solutions To Environmental and Economic Problems) research programs since was initiated in 1976 as a 15-year program. STEEP has been a national model for multi-state, multi-disciplinary efforts among land grant universities, USDA-agencies, conservation districts, grower commodity organizations and Ag advisers to work collectively to solve regional environmental and economic problems.

STEEP and STEEP II grants were cost effective investments of federal funds. The project operating funds (no faculty salary funding) from STEEP grants have effectively leveraged state and local funding for conservation farming research and education projects in the region at a ratio of about 1 to 10. Funding was provided annually as grants to Washington, Idaho and Oregon Agricultural Experiment Stations at the land grant universities, and as an increase in base funds for the USDA Agricultural Research Service.

The STEEP program was renewed as STEEP II in 1991 as a 5-year program. About 55 university and ARS scientists in the Pacific Northwest cooperated on 30 to 35 projects per year during each year of the STEEP II program. A total of 48 research and technology transfer projects are summarized in the 5-year STEEP II Interpretive Summary Report 1991-1996. The 143 page report briefly summaries each project objectives, methods, results and impacts for the region. It also includes a listing of publications developed from each project.

To request a copy of the report, contact Roger Veseth, WSU/UI Extension Conservation Tillage Specialist (208-885-6386 or e-mail rveseth@uidaho.edu), or Don Wysocki, OSU Extension Soil Scientist (541-278-4186 or e-mail wysocki@ccmail.orst.edu). For those wanting more details on the research and technology transfer projects, a limited number of the 316-page STEEP II Final Report: 1991-1996 are also available.

 

Northwest Columbia Plateau Wind Erosion Air Quality Project - 1995 and 1996 Interim Reports

 

Approximately 6.8 million acres of cropland in Washington, Oregon and Idaho are susceptible to wind erosion. It can be a serious problem under the winter wheat-fallow system in the 8- to 14-inch precipitation zones, as well as under irrigated crop production. In addition to the loss of soil productivity, growers have also sustained severe crop damage and replanting expenses, along with associated reduced yield potentials. Dust storms from agricultural areas have raised public concern about air quality, traffic hazards and other environmental and economic impacts.

The Northwest Columbia Plateau Wind Erosion/PM-10 Project, which began in 1993, is a comprehensive research and educational program. It involves USDA Cooperative Research, Extension and Education Service (CSREES), USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), EPA, WA State DOE, and several universities in the Northwest. Technical research for this project is being conducted by scientists from the USDA-ARS, Washington State University, the University of Idaho, and the University of Washington. Project collaborators include researchers from states in the West, growers and grower organizations, the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Conservation Districts and the Ag service industry.

The 1995 Interim Report presents a detailed description of the Columbia Plateau Wind Erosion Air Quality Research Plan (not in 1996 report). The 47-page color report also highlights research on regional characterization of climatic, soils and vegetation of the Columbia Plateau, and prediction of eind erosion and dust transport from farmlands.

The 1996 Interim Report focuses on control practices under development for both dryland and irrigated cropland. The Report also summarizes research on the relationships of wind erosion soil loss to surface cover and roughness, relationships that are independent of soil type and erodibility properties. These relationships for the basis for developing control practices making use of stubble from previous crops, green cover from growing plants and certain types of tillage to create and retain surface roughness. The 63-page color Report highlights 1993-1996 research summaries on control measures for dryland and irrigated cropping. It also includes a current review of principles of wind erosion for the region, an economic evaluation of management options, long-term rates of dust deposition, and educational efforts.

For a copy of the 1995 and/or 1996 Interim Reports, contact Kelly Newell, phone 509-335-1232 or e-mail (newellk@mail.wsu.edu). For more information on Research Project, contact Keith Saxton, USDA-ARS Project Research Coordinator, phone 509 335-2724 or e-mail (saxton@wsu.edu).

The Project also has a World Wide Web Home Page (http://www.pnw-winderosion.wsu.edu). Topic selections include: project plan; wind tunnel research; publications; wind erosion concepts; project personnel; announcements; and the annual research review meeting.

Growers are encouraged to learn more about the Project and actively participate in developing practical, economical solutions to the problem. Most growers have always strived to be good stewards of the land, minimizing erosion and maintaining soil productivity. This research and education program offers them additional assistance in their efforts. They have much to gain from the major research thrust on developing more efficient and profitably management technologies that minimize wind erosion.

20 Years of No-Till -- New Book and Video by Chilean Farmer Carlos Crovetto

 

Carlos Crovetto has used no-till on his 1000 acre farm in Chile for over 20 years. The results are astounding. His dramatic success story has gained worldwide recognition and is fanning the flames of a no-till farming revolution focused on enhancing the cropland soil resource and farm profitability.

New Book -- Mr. Crovetto summarized his no-till farming experiences and extensive research on the topic in a popular 1996 book published by the American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, and Crop Science Society of America. It is titled "Stubble Over the Soil - The Vital Role of Plant Residue in Soil Management to Improve Soil Quality." The in-depth, scientific and impassioned book documents how 20 years of no-till farming has brought a severely eroded farm back to remarkable soil productivity and profitability. The 264-page softcover book (ISBN 0-89118-131-8 can be purchased for $40 (payable to American Society of Agronomy). Send your order to ASA,SSSA, CSSA Headquarters Office; Attn: Book Order Dept; 677 South Segoe Road; Madison, Wisconsin 53711-1086, phone 608-273-8080, e-mail (books@agronomy.org).

Mr. Crovetto has promoted no-till farming as an avid speaker across much of South America, Mexico, England and the U.S., and by hosting tours for thousands of farmer eager to learn first-hand the success of no-till systems on his farm. He has received numerous honors and awards in Chile and the U.S. He was one of the founders of the Soil Conservation Society of Chile and has served as president since 1977.

Seminar Video -- In March 1997 Mr. Crovetto presented a seminar on his no-till farming experience at Washington State University in Pullman. The 1-hour seminar was videtaped and titled "A Success Story: No-Till Farming with Carlos Crovetto. To request a video loan copy or to purchase a copy ($15, bill will be sent with video copy), contact Jeannette Seward, USDA-ARS, 215A Johnson Hall, WSU, P.O. Box 646421, Pullman, WA 99164-6421, phone 509-335-1552, or e-mail (seward@mail.wsu.edu).

 

Zero Tillage Resources from Manitoba-North Dakota Zero Tillage Farmers Assoc.

The Manitoba-North Dakota Zero Tillage Farmers Association has a long and impressive history. It was officially organized in 1982 after years of conferences and meeting through the 1970's and early 1980's. The farmer-run association has been a leader in facilitating the develop and promotion on no-till direct seeding systems that they have termed "zero tillage." The groups has developed some outstanding publications, workshops, videos and member newsletters.

The Zero Tillage - Advancing the Art -- The Association published this zero tillage manual in 1997. The 40-page full color publication is an excellent reference, with many principles that can be applied or adapted to regions outside the Northern Great Plains and Prairie Provinces. Chapters include: sustainability, the no-till soil, economics, rotations, seed and fertilizer, weeds, diseases, forages and information sources. The publication is available free. In the Pacific Northwest, a limited number of copies are available from: Roger Veseth, WSU/UI Conservation Tillage Specialist; Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences Dept., University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339, phone 509-885-6386, or e-mail (rveseth@uidaho.edu). Additional copies are available free with a nominal fee for mailing from: Manitoba-North Dakota Zero Tillage Farmers Association, 105 27th St. NW, Minot, NE 58703, phone/FAX 701-852-8895.

1997 Workshops Proceedings and Videos -- The Association puts on some excellent workshops and the 19th Annual Workshop in Brandon, Manitoba was no exception, despite the - 40oF temperatures. The Proceedings is a great reference with in-depth papers by researchers, growers and Ag industry. Additional copies are available for $8 (U.S.) from the Association office (above). The presentations in the entire 2-day workshop was professionally videotaped into 5 tapes. All five tapes are available at a very reasonable $45 (Canada) price, or they can be purchased individually. For more information of each of the five tapes and how to order copies, contact: Powerhouse Productions, 1906 Park Avenue, Brandon, Manitoba R7B 0R9 Canada, phone 204-727-6937, FAX 728-2086, or internet (http://www.wmcl.com).

Newsletter and Association Membership -- The Association puts out a great quarterly newsletter with detailed articles on new development in management systems and equipment for zero tillage. The articles provide practical information on new research, industry developments and grower experience. The Association Newsletter also provides a good way to stay "connected" with zero tillage events and resources both in and around the region. Membership is $30 (U.S.), including the Newsletter and proceedings of the annual workshop.

 

No-Till Guidlines for the Arid and Semi-Arid Prairies

This publication was printed in 1992 by the Dakota Lakes Research Farm managed by Dr. Dwayne Beck with South Dakota State University. The focus of the Research Farm, and this 30-page publication, is the development of integrated cropping systems for no-till farming under diverse crop rotations. The farm is near Pierre, South Dakota in an area that has been traditionally farmed with the wheat-fallow rotation under conventional tillage. The publication provides an in-depth review of management considerations for a wide variety of crops and crop rotations under no-till. Unfortunately, the publication is currently out of print (5/97). For more information, contact the Dakota Lakes Research Farm, Box 2, Pierre, SD 57501, phone 605-224-6357, FAX 605-224-0845.

 

Saskatchewan Direct Seeding Conference Proceedings and Newsletters

The Saskatchewan Soil Conservation Association has a wealth of information on direct seeding technologies and much of it is available on their World Wide Web Home Page. To reach their Home Page, type http://ssca.usask.ca/ and click on Saskatchewan Soil Conservation Association. The Association developed some excellent proceedings from their Direct Seeding Conferences but most of these are out of print. Fortunately, the last four proceedings (1994 through 1997) are on-line. The last ten issues of the quarterly SSCA newsletters are also on-line and contain detailed articles on practical management issues and research developments on direct seeding systems. For more information on subscription and membership, call 306-695-4233, e-mail info@ssca.usask.ca.

 

Direct Seeding Manual - By PAMI and SSCA

A 3-ring binder Direct Seeding Manual was developed by the Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute (PAMI), with test stations in Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, in cooperation with the Saskatchewan Soil Conservation Association. Color glossy sections of the Manual are compiled into six chapters: rotations, residue, seeding, weeds, fertility and machinery. The price is $25 (Canadian, including shipping). Bulk orders of 10 or more are $20 each, plus shipping. Updates are provided without charge. The Manual is available from the Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute; Box 1900; Humboldt, Saskatchewan, S0K 2A0 Canada, phone 306-682-2555, FAX 682-5080, or phone toll free 1-800-567-PAMI (7264).

 

Alberta Soil Conservation Tillage Society Conference Proceedings and Newsletter

The proceedings of 1997 AgriFUTURE Farm Technology Expo and Alberta Soil Conservation Tillage Society 19th Annual Meeting is a great resource, covering a number of direct seeding topics as well a broader conservation issues. The Society has been around a long time and has a wealth of experience and information to offer. Copies of the proceedings are available for $15 (U.S.) payable to Alberta ConservationTillage Society, Box 326, Carbon, Alberta T0M 0L0, Canada, phone 403-572-3600. The Society also produces an excellent bimonthly newsletter called Conservation Tillage News - Voice of the Conservation Farmer, which focuses primarily on direct seeding and other minimum tillage systems. It is an outstanding newsletter with in-depth articles about applied research development and grower experiences. Contact the Society about membership to receive the Newsletter and other information resources.

 

Alberta Reduced Tillage Initiative (WWW Home Page)

The Alberta Reduced Tillage Initiative (ARTI) is a partnership for conservation, production and profit in Alberta, Canada. To reach their Home Page, type http://paridss.usask.ca/consgroups and click on ATRI. They had 19 Direct Seeding Fact Sheets on line on a variety of management considerations, and a number of new fact sheets in progress. Other interesting sites include direct seeding technical papers, direct seed discussion groups and coming events.

 

No-Till - Protecting the Heartland -- New Video from Zeneca

This 1997 video by Zeneca Ag Products traces the history of agricultural tillage practices and soil conservation from the ivention of the plow through the disaster of the Dust Bowl to the science of modern no-till crop production. It features notes from historical figures such as Thomas Jefferson, interviews with no-till pioneers from the 1960's, and the no-till techniques and philosophies of progressive 1990's farmers. Written from both farm and general audiences, it explains the importance of no-till in producing abundant food in a healthy environment. The video is dedicated to the achievements of the no-till pioneers, and to the current and future innovators of no-till who are leading the way to conservation our precious topsoil while providing abundant, affordable supply of food and fiber for generations to come. Copies of the video are available free to growers and Ag support groups and agencies by calling 1-800-759-2500.

 

No-Tillage: Science and Practice -- 1996 Book through Oxford University Press

Authors of this book are C.J. Baker, K.E. Saxton and W.R Ritchie. Baker and Ritchie are with the Centre for International No-Tillage Research and Engineering, New Zealand, and Saxton is the the USDA Agricultural Research Service at Washington State University, Pullman. The major focus of this 272-page book is to show how to reduce risks in establishing crops under no-till systems. It begins by describing the inter-relationships between soils, machines, seeds and growing plants. Too often in the past the subject has been approached from a purely engineering or a purely soils perspective, neglicting the agronomic viewpoint. The authors focus on the needs of the plants which thus determine the requirements for a no-tillage seed drill. The result of their own research is the inverted T-shaped no-tillage soil slot and the Cross Slot drillTM and planter opener, which are described in some detail. By re-evaluating common assumptions about seed germiation in soil, the authors provide a totally new perspective on no-tillage seeding. The book is available for $90 (U.S.) from Oxford University Press. For more information and book ordering, phone 1-800-451-7556. The ISBN number is 0 85199 103 3.

 

Wheat Health Management Book

Wheat Health Management, printed 1991, was the first book in a new "Plant Health Management Series" by the American Phytopathological Society (APS) Press. It integrates all important facets of wheat health management into a decision framework to help growers develop more efficient, environmentally-sound production systems which optimize yields within the constraints of the environment. The unique "holistic" approach of this book focuses on the whole cropping system -- not just on the wheat plant or on individual management choices apart from interactions within the overall cropping system. The 168 glossy publication contains 94 color and 83 black and white pictures.

The authors are R. James Cook and Roger J. Veseth. Cook is a Plant Pathologist with the USDA-Agricultural Research Service at Washington State University in Pullman, where he is the Research Leader for the ARS Root Disease and Biological Control Research Unit. Veseth is a Conservation Tillage Specialist with WSU and University of Idaho. The authors receive no royalties on book sales, just the satisfaction of contributing to the health of the wheat industry.

An underlying theme of the book is to optimize wheat health and yield potential under no-till and minimum tillage systems. There is a growing awareness worldwide that agriculture must become more productive and efficient yet also be sustainable and ecologically sound in the long-term. To accomplish these sometimes seemingly contradictory goals, agriculture must become increasingly more sophisticated and technical. Wheat Health Management is intended to help growers develop full cropping system strategies which focus on both profitability and environmental protection.

The opening chapter of Wheat Health Management describes wheat in the wild to make key points on how wheat manages its own health, including its own innate ability to avoid, resist or tolerate diseases, insect pests, drought, temperature extremes and other hazards, and how these traits have been lost or enhanced through domestication and breeding. Chapter 2 describes how healthy wheat plants grow. The limiting effects of climate, weather, and soils on wheat development and production potential are covered in chapter 3. It introduces the concept that the crop should be managed for realistic yield goals. To manage current varieties for higher yields than attainable within the limits of growing degree-days, available water, or other constraints of the environment not only can be inefficient and wasteful of resources, but can lead to crop stress and greater susceptibility to some diseases.

The fourth chapter describes the real world of pests and diseases, and their effects on the wheat crop from seedlings in the field to grain in the bin. Both short-term and long-term economic implications of wheat health management are considered in Chapter 5, including discussions of maximum economic yield and alternative agriculture. Chapter 6 presents principles and concepts of disease and pest management in a simplified format of physical, chemical, and biological methods. This chapter is intended to help the reader develop strategies for wheat health management within the limits of their natural and economic resources.

The most innovative feature of this book is the format developed in Chapters 7-9 to integrate the technical information on management of diseases, weeds, insect pests, parasitic nematodes and abiotic environmental constraints to wheat health. Chapter 7 deals with practices applied before planting. These include crop rotations, tillage, residue management, soil testing and fertilizer application, and preplant herbicide treatments. Chapter 8 covers practices carried out at planting -- the choice of variety, seed quality, planting date, rate and depth, and at-planting applications of fertilizer and pesticides. Chapter 9 covers practices carried out in the growing crop after planting, including at harvest and after harvest when the grain is in the bin. The final chapter introduces eight scientifically-based principles of holistic health for wheat, giving attention to the whole cropping systems, as well as the wheat crop.

To request more information or order a copy, call APS Press toll-free at 1-800-328-7560 between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m. CST. The book price is $55 (U.S.), plus $7 shipping and handling.

 

No-Till Green Bridge Video and Publication

Northwest research has show that volunteer grain and weeds growing between crop harvest and spring planting under no-till and minimum tillage can serve as a "green bridge" host for build up of some root diseases caused by soilborne pathogens. But early control of this green bridge -- beginning in the fall when possible -- has proven to be an effective management tool for minimizing losses from some root diseases, such as Rhizoctonia root rot, Pythium root rot and take-all. In addition, fall control can also reduce the incidence of Cephalosporium stripe, improve control of winter annual grassy weeds, such as downy brome and jointed goatgrass, and reduce populations of Hessian fly. A video and two PNW Extension publications provide more information on early green bridge control as an effective pest management tool to enhance crop yields under conservation tillage systems.

A colorful and fast-moving video titled "Managing the Green Bridge: Root Disease Control in Conservation Tillage," video VT0040, was completed in January 1993 by Washington State University Cooperative Extension. The 17-minute video includes a series of animated graphics to clearly explain how the green bridge can increase root diseases and how it can be managed with early control. It features USDA-Agricultural Research Service scientists R. James Cook and Alex Ogg, Jr. explaining actual field trials comparing early versus late green bridge control for spring barley after winter wheat under no-till and conventional tillage. Two Washington farmers also share their experiences of how early green bridge control has increased the profitability of spring crops through the use of conservation tillage. For a copy of video VT0040, send a $15 check (payable to WSU Cooperative Extension Publications) to the Bulletin Office, WSU Cooperative Extension, Cooper Publications Bldg., Pullman, WA 99164-5912 or call (509) 335-2999.

Two PNW Extension publications are available on the topic: "Green Bridge Key to Root Disease Control" (1992 PNW Conservation Tillage Handbook Series No. 16 in Chapter 4), and Green Bridge Controls Starts in the Fall" (1993 PNW Conservation Tillage Handbook Series No. 18 in Chapter 4). For copies contact Roger Veseth, WSU/UI Extension Conservation Tillage Specialist, at the Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences Dept., University of Idaho, Moscow 83844-2339, phone (208) 885-6386, FAX (208) 885-7760, or e-mail (rveseth@uidaho.edu).

Copies of the complete Handbook are available for $20 through county extension offices in the Northwest or ordered directly from: Idaho -- Ag Publications, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2240 (208) 885-7982; Oregon -- Ag Communications, Publications Orders, Oregon State University, Administrative Services A422, Corvallis, OR 97331-2119 (541)-737-2513; Washington -- Bulletin Office, Cooperative Extension, Cooper Publications Bldg., Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-5912, (509) 335-2999 (plus $4 for shipping and handling; WA residents add 7.5% sales tax).

It’s now available of the Internet! All of the PNW Handbook Handbook Series are being put on the World Wide Web Home Page (http://pnwsteep.wsu.edu) titled Pacific Northwest STEEP III Conservation Farming Systems Information Source. The Web site also contains recent issues of the PNW STEEP III Extension Conservation Farming Update,listing of other conservation tillage information resources, coming events and much more.

 

Profitable Conservation Cropping Systems Video and Publication

A 6-year Integrated Pest Management (IPM) conservation cropping systems project near Pullman, WA was conducted from 1989 through 1991 by an interdisciplinary team of scientists from the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Washington State University and the University of Idaho. The in-depth agronomic and economic study was conducted with field-scale equipment on an 80-acre research site near Pullman, WA in a 21-inch annual precipitation zone. Although the results of this IPM project have the greatest application to the annual cropping region where it was conducted, many of the crop management principles can be adapted for use in other cropping regions.

The study compared 12 cropping systems comprised of combinations of two crop rotations, two tillage systems and three weed management levels. Crop rotations were continuous wheat (winter wheat-winter wheat-spring wheat) and a 3-year rotation of winter wheat-spring barley-spring dry pea.

Tillage systems were conventional tillage and conservation tillage. Conventional tillage began with the moldboard plow after wheat and barley, and the disk after peas. Most of the crop residue was buried by seeding time. Conservation tillage included both minimum tillage and no-till where appropriate in the rotations, and generally maintained 30 to 50 percent surface residue cover after seeding. The chisel was the primary tillage implement after winter wheat and spring barley under minimum tillage. A no-till drill was used to plant winter wheat after spring wheat in continuous wheat and after peas in the 3-year rotation.

Low, moderate and high weed management levels were evaluated in each rotation-tillage system. The moderate weed management level included herbicide applications normally recommended by Cooperative Extension. The low level consisted of minimum herbicide use to permit a crop harvest. The high weed management level was achieved by selecting herbicides and applications rates, combinations of herbicides, and sometimes multiple applications to provide the best weed control possible. The scientists varied the herbicides and rates from year to year depending upon the weed species and densities.

A 30-minute video titled "Profitable Conservation Cropping Systems -- Insights from the USDA-ARS IPM Project" highlights the results of the 6-year study. The video consists largely of field interviews with the project scientists explaining why the 3-year rotation under conservation tillage with moderate or high weed management levels resulted in higher yields, lower risks and greater profits compared to shorter rotation and/or more intensive tillage. Improved pest control and water conservation are highlighted as important factors in the success of these conservation cropping systems. The video costs $15 (Washington residents add 7.5% sales tax), plus $4 for shipping and handling. To order a copy, send a check payable to Cooperative Extension Publications, with a request for video VT0029 - Profitable Conservation Cropping Systems, to Bulletin Office, Cooperative Extension, Cooper Publications Bldg., WSU, Pullman, WA 99164-5912, phone 509-335-2999.

A WSU Research Bulletin (XB1029) titled "IPM Research Project for Inland Pacific Northwest Wheat Production" provides an in-depth summary of research trial, crop management practices, and production results. Single copies are available without charge from the WSU Bulletin Office (above).

 

No-Till Farmer

The No-Till Farmer newsletter is a no-till "readers digest," providing snapshots of new no-till development in research, industry and grower experiences, as well as more in-depth articles. The 8-page newsletter is published 17 times a year. Although it has a strong corn-soybean focus, it is expanding to cover no-till topics from across the U.S. and beyond. Editor/Publisher Frank Lessiter has been a leader in the promotion of no-till technology. Beside the newsletter, he has published a number of other no-till publications and organized five National No-Tillage Conferences. For more information on the No-Till Farmer newsletter and other related no-till resources, contact No-Till Farmer, P.O. Box 624, Brookfield, WI 53008-0624, phone 414-782-4480, FAX 782-1252, or e-mail (lesspub@aol.com).

 

Northwest Guide to Crop Residue Management Strategies

Crop residue management strategies and consideration for conservation tillage systems in the Northwest are the focus of USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Conservation Research Report No. 40 published in 1995. "Crop Residue Management to Reduce Erosion and Improve Soil Quality -- Northwest," is one of six regional ARS reports developed to summarize important research results and experiences on crop residue management for conservation farming systems and make them available to growers and grower-advisers. The publication also includes a large color map of the major cropland resource areas of the Northwest.

The 64-page Northwest publication contains eleven chapters related to residue management considerations. Four of the chapters were developed from a national perspective and are included in all six of the regional publication. They cover the importance of residue management in erosion control, management of land coming out of the CRP program, and long-term effects of tillage and crop residue management. The other seven chapters of the Northwest publication were developed by teams of scientists from this region, including Robert Papendick, Frank Young, R. James Cook, Don McCool, Paul Rasmussen, Dave Carter, and Melvin Brown with the USDA-Agricultural Research Service; Keith Pike and Doug Young with Washington State University; Don Wysocki with Oregon State University; John Hammel with University of Idaho; and Roger Veseth with WSU and UI.

Topic for these Northwest-specific chapters include: 1) Description of the region as it relates to crop residue management systems; 2) Effects and retention of surface residue for erosion control; 3) Residue management under dryland cropping addressed in three separate chapters for high, intermediate, and low precipitation zones; 4) Residue management on irrigated land; and 5)Alternatives to surface residue.

The three chapters on residue management for the different precipitation zones focus on considerations for the primary crop rotations within each zone. Management considerations include fertility, tillage and planting options, risk and management of weeds and diseases, supporting conservation practices, and economic advantages and risks.

Copies of this publication are available free of charge through local USDA-NRCS offices in the Northwest. You can also request free copies from Roger Veseth, WSU/UI Extension Conservation Tillage Specialist (208-885-6386 or e-mail rveseth@uidaho.edu), or Don Wysocki, OSU Extension Soil Scientist (541-278-4186 or e-mail wysocki@ccmail.orst.edu). Copies of crop residue management publications for the Northwest and other five regions are available for $10 each through the Conservation Technology Information Center (317) 494-9555.

 

The Pacific Northwest Conservation Tillage Handbook is a large three-ring binder handbook that is updated with new and revised Handbook Series publications. It was initiated in 1989 as a PNW Extension publication in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Updates to the Handbook are provided when the updating card is returned. By 1997, 34 new PNW Conservation Tillage Handbook Series have been added to the original 98 publications Copies are available for $20 through county extension offices in the Northwest or ordered directly by calling state extension publication offices: Idaho -- (208) 885-7982; Oregon -- (541)-737-2513; Washington -- (509) 335-2999 (some shipping and handling charges and sales tax may apply).

It’s now accessible on the Internet! All of the PNW Conservation Tillage Handbook and Handbook Series are being put on the World Wide Web Home Page (http://pnwsteep.wsu.edu) titled Pacific Northwest STEEP III Conservation Farming Systems Information Source. The Web site also contains recent issues of the PNW STEEP III Extension Conservation Tillage Update, listings of other conservation tillage information resources, coming events and much more. For more information on the Handbook or updates to the Handbook, contact Roger Veseth, WSU/UI Conservation Tillage Specialist, Plant Soil and Entomological Sciences Department, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339, phone 208-885-6386, FAX 208-885-7760, e-mail (rveseth@uidaho.edu).

Pacific Northwest Conservation Tillage Handbook Series publications are jointly produced by University of Idaho Cooperative Extension System, Oregon State University Extension Service and Washington State University Cooperative Extension. Similar crops, climate, and topography create a natural geographic unit that crosses state lines in this region. Joint writing, editing, and production prevent duplication of effort, broaden the availability of faculty, and substantially reduce costs for the participating states.

For herbicide application recommendations, refer to product labels and the Pacific Northwest Weed Control Handbook, an annually revised extension publication available from the extension offices of the University of Idaho, Oregon State University and Washington State University. To simplify information, chemical and equipment trade names have been used. Neither endorsement of named products is intended, nor criticism implied of similar products not mentioned.

Cooperative Extension programs and policies comply with federal and state laws and regulations on nondiscrimination regarding race, color, gender, national origin, religion, age, disability, and sexual orientation. The University of Idaho Cooperative Extension System, Oregon State University Extension Service and Washington State University Cooperative Extension are Equal Opportunity Employers.

     
 

Contact us: Hans Kok, (208)885-5971 | Accessibility | Copyright | Policies | WebStats | STEEP Acknowledgement
Hans Kok, WSU/UI Extension Conservation Tillage Specialist, UI Ag Science 231, PO Box 442339, Moscow, ID 83844 USA
Redesigned by Leila Styer, CAHE Computer Resource Unit; Maintained by Debbie Marsh, Dept. of Crop & Soil Sciences, WSU